As ofthe Public Employment Service Austria AMS makes use of algorithmic profiling of job seekers to increase the efficiency of its counseling process and the effectiveness of active labor market programs. Based on a statistical model of job seekers' prospects on the labor market, the system—that has become known as the AMS algorithm—is deed to classify clients of the AMS into three : those with high chances to find a job within half a year, those with mediocre prospects on the job market, and those clients with a bad outlook of employment in the next 2 years.
A country of outstanding natural beauty and home to some of the world's most attractive cities, getting a job in Austria means you'll be working right at the heart of Europe. Ranked 10th in the World Happiness ReportAustria's nine million-strong population enjoys a high standard of living due to its low unemployment rates and thriving economy. Making the move is also a great way to acquire a second language and give your CV a boost. While English is widely spoken, German is Austria's official language, so you'll need it to succeed in the workplace. In your free time there's plenty to do whatever your interests.
Since its inception inthe Arab Spring has evolved into a situation of violent conflict in many countries, leading to high levels of migration from the affected region. Given the social impact of the large of individuals applying for asylum across Europe init is important to study who these persons are in terms of their skills, motivations, and intentions.
DiPAS Displaced Persons in Austria Survey aims to uncover the socio-demographic characteristics of the persons seeking refuge who arrived in Austria inmainly originating from Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan. Particular focus is on human capital, attitudes and values. This survey, the first of its kind in Austria and possibly in Europe, was carried out among adult displaced persons, mostly residing in Vienna, yielding completed interviews.
Human capital, values, and attitudes of persons seeking refuge in austria in
Information gathered on spouses and children allows for the analysis of persons living in Austria, and of further partners and children abroad. indicate that the surveyed population comprised mainly young families with children, particularly those coming from Syria and Iraq. Their educational level is high compared with the average level in their country of origin. A vast majority of respondents are Muslims, rating their religiosity at medium levels.
Judging from stated attitudes towards gender equity, interviewed men seem to have more liberal attitudes than their compatriots. The majority of respondents do not intend to return to their home countries, mostly because of the perception of permanent threat.
DiPAS provides data for political decision-making and the on-going societal dialogue. Its findings can help to inform assessments about the integration potential of the displaced population into the host society.
In addition, the applied methodological technique and experiences during the fieldwork provide valuable insights on sampling asylum seekers and refugees in the current European context. Since its start inthe Arab Spring has evolved into a situation of civil wars in many countries in the Middle East and North Africa seeking, most notably in Libya, Iraq, Yemen, and Syria, with the whole region now appearing to be unstable.
The turmoil has led to waves of people seeking refuge, in a way unprecedented since World War II. While with of the displaced persons fled within their home country 7 million in Syria or to neighbouring countries, e. Refuge-seeking persons from Middle Eastern countries have been ed by those of other nationalities, such as Eritreans and Afghans, who have acted upon the de facto liberalisation of policies regarding refugee flows in many European countries. Austria—a country in Central Europe—traditionally receives high s of asylum seekers, due to its geographical location, the historical legacy of the Habsburg Empire and the historical interest turmoil in the neighbouring Eastern European countries e.
Hungary, Former Czechoslovakia, Former Yugoslavia [ 3 — 6 ]. While in the vast majority of the persons seeking refuge in Europe aimed to apply for asylum in Germany which received almost half a million asylum applications in [ 8 ]a substantial share also came to Austria in that year. In total, 88, individuals applied for asylum in Austria in [ 9 ].
The inflow of displaced persons was highest in summer and autumn, with roughly 60, asylum applications filed between July and December S1 File. The citizenship of asylum seekers varies both temporally and regionally within European countries [ 1911 — 14 ].
The share of these three citizenships was large also in countries such as Germany, Sweden, Netherlands, Finland and Norway that witnessed heavy inflows of displaced persons in [ 9111314 ]. The male study Austria an important research gap that stems from the general scarcity of quantitative data and studies on forced migration and displaced persons e. This scarcity arises partly due to the difficulties in sampling forced migrants, owing mostly to the volatility of their status similar their protection. Notable exceptions are surveys among Palestinian refugees in Lebanon [ 16 ] and among Syrian refugees in Turkey [ 17 ].
Displaced persons resulting from forced migration, according to the definition of the International Organization for Migration IOMleave their countries to escape man-made or natural situations that endanger their lives, freedom or livelihood.
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They encompass several : Refugees persons who are recognized as such under the term of the Refugee Conventionsubsidiary protected persons who are granted temporally restricted humanitarian protectionasylum seekers persons displaced outside of their national borders who have formally applied for international protection but whose claim has not yet been determined by the receiving state and internally displaced persons who are displaced within their own nation states. Both the needs of displaced persons and the challenges of the receiving societies have been studied, often using interdisciplinary approaches [ 18 — 23 ].
Several themes are recurrent in the research on forced migration, such as: Vulnerable groups e. These studies employ various methodological approaches, both qualitative and quantitative. Whereas researchers typically apply methods used within their academic discipline [ 30 ], sampling techniques used in qualitative research like snowballing have been suggested as an appropriate methodology in quantitative research when working with difficult-to-access populations [ 3132 ].
Typically, research conducted on refugees is within one community or within one locality and cooperation with NGOs is frequently necessary [ 3133 — 36 ]. There are few studies focusing on the characteristics of displaced persons coming to Europe in recent years. Given the heavy inflows, the economic consequences for the receiving countries are increasingly studied in the European context [ 38 ]. The authors conclude that integration efforts need to be customised because refugee populations are increasingly diverse in terms of family context, education, professional qualifications, and nationalities.
This has been also addressed recently on national levels [ 384041 ]. Further studies in the European context focused on the choice of country of refuge and return to the home country.
A study carried out in Norway explored the dynamics of asylum movements and sought to answer the question of how refugees choose asylum destinations [ 42 ]. The latest wave of displaced persons into Europe has resulted in a new migration situation.
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Moreover, data collection in Italy and Greece has been commissioned by the World Bank, in parallel with work in Turkey, Jordan and Lebanon. Due to the varied backgrounds and structure of asylum seekers in individual countries, all of these studies are highly relevant to address country-specific challenges, with the current study offering the first insights for Austria.
The fieldwork was carried out in November and Decemberaiming to uncover the socio-demographic characteristics of the persons seeking refuge who arrived in Austria in Given the societal relevance of the latest migration flows in the EU, it is of the utmost importance to not only determine how many individuals are seeking asylum, but also to investigate who these individuals are by studying their socio-economic characteristics. Given the complexity of surveys on displaced persons, the preparation, sampling and data collection for DiPAS are described in detail.
Within the literature on displaced persons, scholars are increasingly addressing ethical and methodological aspects of the collection of data [ 304849 ]. On top of the usual difficulties in surveying any trait in any particular population, displaced persons are in a situation of emergency and their management by local governmental and non-governmental organizations, very often on an ad hoc basis, renders sampling difficult [ 25325051 ].
Secondly refugees are not identifiable in official statistics.
Thirdly, government ministries will not provide researchers with information to locate refugees for reasons of confidentiality. Representativeness and possible biases have to be addressed within the context of any survey and scholars have pointed out that sampling respondents is one of the main challenges faced when carrying out surveys with refugees [ 3048 ]. Due to the paucity of data on refugees and asylum seekers from which to sample, surveys are usually based on non-probability techniques and mostly rely on access to refugees through community-based organizations or larger refugee NGOs [ 30 ].
Algorithmic profiling of job seekers in austria: how austerity politics are made effective
It is argued that research on displaced persons always involves a degree of compromise [ 3653 ]. Scholars underline that prior knowledge of the target group is central, especially when no sampling frames are available [ 3049 ].
Accordingly, in-depth exploratory work on allocation of displaced persons to residences in Austria in the context of the large inflows in was carried out prior to the actual DiPAS survey. Basic data on the of asylum applications are typically collected by official institutions and government-related agencies.
Monthly statistics show that the autumn of was the season with the highest s of asylum applications S1 File. Due to the high s of refuge-seeking persons in in Austria, large emergency quarters were established to accommodate them, as well as to provide basic assistance to those transiting through Austria on their journey from the Hungarian and Slovenian borders to other destinations mainly Germany and the Nordic countries.
Transiting displaced persons were partly accommodated over a short period of time in special transit quarters and were not captured in the current survey by de. The asment to emergency quarters by the Austrian Federal Ministry of the Interior was random, especially in terms of individual characteristics including citizenship and human capital.
Original research article
In Vienna, the high concentration of asylum seekers in emergency quarters is indicated by the fact that by the end of Novemberwhen the fieldwork was conducted, one-third of all displaced persons receiving basic assistance were residing in such accommodations. In Austria, displaced persons receive basic assistance while their asylum application is pending, as well as for a transition period of four months following the approval of their application.
For reasons of financial and logistical feasibility, our strategy was to focus on newly arrived displaced persons residing in these large emergency quarters. The survey was conducted in seven NGO-run refugee housing facilities in and around Vienna, among them four large emergency quarters and three smaller locations in Austria, only a small of care centres for displaced persons are managed directly by the federal state—the vast majority are operated by NGOs on behalf of the federal provinces.
Within each accommodation, interviewers approached individuals to ask for participation. Additionally, in the large emergency quarters we benefitted from indirect snowball effects, as those who gave an interview approached others within their accommodation and told them about the survey. The fieldwork was carried out during November and December Participants provided their verbal informed consent to participate in the study; the interviewer read out the introductory text to the questionnaire and the participant verbally agreed to participate.
Written consent was not obtained to ensure anonymity of the participants. We did not document participant consent, as only the participants giving their consent were interviewed. The ethics committee approved our procedure.
Moreover, specific questions to investigate potential inclusion in the labour market were added. Demography: Age, gender, country of origin, ethnicity, marital status, former place of residence. Human capital: Highest educational attainment ISCED97 classificationtype of schooling, occupational trainings, language competence. Health: Self-perceived health, grip strength, limitation in activities of daily living.
Attitudes and values: Religion, democracy, gender equity, division of household work. Data were collected using computer-assisted personal interviewing CAPI techniques. The interviews were carried out by volunteers and students. This strategy aimed to avoid a bias towards more highly educated respondents that would be the result of only offering the questionnaire in English, or requiring basic literacy, as is the case with paper and pencil questionnaires. Although the participation of refugees in data collection and research has to be critically assessed from ethical and methodological perspectives [ 57 ], the inclusion of refugees as bicultural aides in the development of the survey and as interviewers turned out to be crucial.
All interviewers received extensive training, including intercultural competence training focusing on diverging cultural backgrounds between the interviewers and respondents.